Also starring: Meg Ryan, David Morse, Pamela Reed, Michael
Kitchen, David Caruso.
Scheduled release: December, 2000
Click here to read reviews
Tue, May 23, 2000
Stax here with my reaction to the
screenplay for Proof of Life! This 130-page rewrite
is by Tony Gilroy (The Devil's Advocate) and is
dated July 6th, 1999. Proof of Life is currently
filming under the direction of Taylor Hackford (The
Devil's Advocate) and stars Meg Ryan, Russell Crowe,
David Morse (The Green Mile), Pamela Reed, Michael
Kitchen (Tanner in Goldeneye), and former NYPD
Blue lead David Caruso. Proof began filming
this past March in Ecuador, Poland, and London. Castle Rock,
Bel-Air Entertainment, and Pinewood Studios are producing;
Warner Brothers have scheduled the film for release on December
15th, 2000. Gilroy's screenplay is based on the May 1998
Vanity Fair article "Adventures in the Ransom Trade"
by William Prochnau.
Proof of Life investigates
a growing (and very profitable) criminal trade that is now
popular in various global hot spots: kidnapping international
businessmen in exchange for a handsome ransom to be paid
by the wealthy corporation the hostage works for. You may
not have heard much about this deadly new international
crime wave but it does exist and it has become so problematic
that private businesses have been created to help contend
with it. These "international consultants" work
for the insurance companies who insure various large firms;
they employ largely former military and law enforcement-types
who will act as hostage negotiators and/or couriers for
the ransom. Unofficially, they often provide the only hope
and solace for the families of the hostages. The kidnappers
range from renegade military-types and political guerrillas
to narco-terrorists, and they can be found anywhere from
Chechnya to Latin America. Hostages are usually held for
extended periods of time, sometimes even up to a couple
of years, and endure severe physical and psychological torture
at the hands of their captors.
The main characters in this script
are former SAS man Terry Thorne (Crowe, whose English character
will be an Australian in the film) and Alice Gehrig (Ryan,
who landed a $15 million dollar payday for this part), the
wife of kidnapped American engineer Peter Gehrig (Morse).
Peter works in the fictitious Latin American land of Telacca
for the U.S. firm Gem-Carbon. Although Gem-Carbon is the
faceless, capitalistic monster that controls the local oil
pipeline, Peter is in Telacca purely on a humanitarian mission.
He is helping to build a dam for the locals and this major
project is his first managerial coup. He hopes it will serve
as the springboard for better assignments and higher pay,
ending the years of globe-hopping grunt work he has had
to endure. Peter's occupation and the constant travel it
demands have strained his marriage. Alice tires of living
abroad and spending so much time alone. Peter is soon kidnapped
by a band of local narco-guerrillas who demand a pretty
penny for his return. The problem is that Gem-Carbon has
been bought out and the new firm, OXO, wants nothing to
do with the Gehrigs' problem.
Into this fray comes Risk Management
"consultant" Terry Thorne who bends company policy
to help Alice Gehrig try and retrieve her husband. Terry
is accompanied on this mission by fellow hard-asses Dino
(Caruso) and Wyatt. The tediously complex negotiating process
with the kidnappers takes place over several months, more
than enough time for romantic tension to develop between
Terry and Alice. (We are inter-cutting between the negotiations
and Peter's time in captivity.) Against their better judgment,
Terry and Alice "complicate" their situation even
more by revealing their feelings toward each other. Just
as the chances for Peter's recovery seem their lowest, Terry
and Dino stick their necks out for the Gehrigs farther than
they figured they would have to.
of Life is a very taut and engrossing drama/thriller
with good dialogue, memorable characters, and is about a
compelling subject. Although the industry trades have played
up the romantic nature of the story (the final script could
have been altered to focus more on the relationship between
Terry and Alice), the draft I read was a plot-driven genre
picture that kept me turning the pages until its action-packed
finale. This film should serve as a fine follow-up to Gladiator
for Russell Crowe; it offers a lot of macho antics for his
male fans to enjoy while also showcasing his more vulnerable
side that women responded to in L.A. Confidential.
Fortunately for Meg Ryan, Alice is not another of her chirpy,
smiling elf roles but a world-weary and resilient adult.
I do hope that whatever script revisions that have been
made since this draft have beefed up her character more.
Although she is "the suffering wife," Alice hardly
ever breaks down emotionally in this draft. She tries like
the devil to keep in control of an impossible situation;
it is because Terry "has been (her) rock" throughout
this ordeal that Alice finds herself drawn to him. Although
their relationship was nicely sketched here, I do hope that
it will be developed further in the final film. Not more
kissy-face scenes, mind you, but more time spent on them
getting to know each other better. One of my favorite scenes
in this draft isn't an action sequence but one where Terry
and Alice just sit down for a respite and talk about their
lives. Gilroy's ear for dialogue helps make what could have
been a very manipulative and hokey scene work.
I do have concerns about the degree
to which Terry and Alice should act on their feelings. I
would much rather see a sexual tension that is implied between
two characters (who are not supposed to be together) than
to see them act on their feelings explicitly. Take Moonlighting,
for example. Once David and Maddie succumbed to their feelings
the show never quite worked again. This draft was somewhat
vague as to how far Terry and Alice take their forbidden
romance (the "cardinal sin" in his line of work)
but I think this is a case where the less they do could
be a whole lot more dramatic and poignant.
One of my biggest criticisms of
David Caruso has been that he never seemed to find the humor
in his characterizations. He just always seemed so glum
and self-absorbed. Happily, this film may change that perception
of him. Dino provides what little comic relief there is
this story, with his intermittent sardonic wit helping both
the other characters and the reader make it through all
the tension okay. It should be noted that Dino is not simply
Terry's smart-aleck side-kick; he's more of his partner,
every bit Thorne's equal in this dangerous line of work.
The most grueling screen work, however, will certainly be
reserved for David Morse who plays Peter. Nearly all of
his scenes are in the jungle camp (shot in Ecuador), and
often alone, where we see the rigors Peter must endure in
order to survive his captivity. Morse's inherent integrity
and physical brawn should make Peter even more interesting;
seeing such a noble, tough guy as Morse being held hostage
by young thugs with submachine guns should make for lots
of interesting contrasts.
Some people may not like the story's
finale too much because that is where the story goes into
more conventional genre territory. I don't want to say too
much about it because I don't want to spoil it for anyone
but some might find the ending derivative of Uncommon
Valor, Missing In Action, Rambo: First
Blood, Part 2, or even Clear and Present Danger.
I understand that criticism but considering that so much
of Proof has been of people trapped in a room thick
with tension I found this action-packed climax to be a cathartic
experience. The rumble-in-the jungle ending also bookends
nicely with the script's opening where we are introduced
to Terry making a hostage/ransom swap in the dangerous,
frozen plains of Chechnya (shot in Poland).
I found Terry's line of work riveting.
You see what a dangerous, wearisome, and solitary life he
leads: traveling non-stop, constantly in peril, and emotionally
exhausted. Alice's entrance into Terry's life reminds him
of what is missing from it. Ultimately, though, Terry's
job defines who he is. Another aspect I found interesting
about "Risk Management" is how business-like they
treat life and death. Terry's job is not to play John Wayne
with the bad guys but to negotiate a ransom. What is this
person's life worth and is this figure acceptable for both
sides? (That's why these negotiations take so long and why
the captives are held for so long.) One of the first jobs
I held when I graduated from college was in the insurance
industry. I've had people literally say to me "I'm
dying. Please help me." And then I had to deny them
coverage, or explain to them why the necessary treatments/drugs
they needed were not available to them. All this while my
own sister was in chemotherapy and dealing with these same
problems. These memories never left me even though I saw
how my co-workers viewed "clients" and their tragedies
in a detached, practical manner not unlike how Risk Management
treats their clientele. Yes, it's life and death but it's
also a job and at a certain point one becomes numb to the
regular spectacles of trauma they must contend with. I also
had a job with Prudential Life Insurance for all of two
days. I quit because I couldn't reconcile myself with the
fact that what life insurers do is assess what a person
is worth in dollars, or what they would have been worth
had they survived. Terry's haggling with the kidnappers
about what is an acceptable sum for Peter reminded me of
those dreadful seminars I attended way back when. In the
world of kidnapping (and life insurance), all men are NOT
really enjoyed Proof of Life and look forward to
seeing it on the big screen later this year. If subsequent
script revisions added more dimension to the relationship
between Terry and Alice, and perhaps gave Peter's captors
more of an identity, then Proof of Life just might
snag itself an Oscar nomination or two. This script nicely
developed the sexual tension between its two principal characters
that grew as the momentum built towards Peter's fate. Proof
of Life could have been a hit-and-miss kidnap tale
like Ransom, or strictly an action vehicle like
The Negotiator, but its exotic locale, sharp dialogue,
and gripping subject matter made it a genre tale with enough
brains and heart to match its action sequences.
Read more from STAX at Filmforce
And Ryan Romance Blamed for Film Flop
February 21, 2001 10:49 pm EST LONDON (Reuters)
The high-profile but short-lived romance between Hollywood
stars Russell Crowe and Meg Ryan was directly to blame for
their latest movie's poor box office showing, the film's
director said. "It had an indelible and very destructive
effect on the release of the film in the U.S. because the
real life story overpowered the film," director Taylor Hackford
told reporters before the London launch of the film "Proof
of Life" on Wednesday.
and Ryan, who was married to actor Dennis Quaid, began a
much-publicized affair while filming "Proof of Life" in
Ecuador last year. Ryan, 38, ended her nine-year marriage
to Quaid, but split with Crowe, 37, earlier this year. Crowe,
nominated for best actor at both the American and British
Academy Awards for his role in the Roman epic "Gladiator,"
told reporters in London that he was not to blame for the
break-up of Ryan's marriage. "The end of her prior relationship
had nothing to do with me. Meg Ryan is a beautiful and courageous
woman and I grieve the loss of her companionship, but I've
not lost her friendship," he said.
New Zealand-born star said he was looking forward to Sunday's
Bafta (British Academy of Film and Television) awards in
London which, unlike in previous years, will take place
before the Oscars. "I'm from the Antipodes... getting a
nomination from the British Academy is to me of equal importance
as the American Academy," he said. "I think it's a really
smart idea to put the Baftas on before the Oscars. If in
the last few years its level of importance has dropped,
its repositioning will bring it back the place it should
~Thanks to Cheri for posting
The Vanity Fair
article, Adventures In The Ransom Trade
by William Prochnau and the book Long March to Freedom:
Tom Hargrove’s Own Story of His Kidnapping by Colombian
Narco-Guerrillas by Thomas Hargrove, inspired the motion
picture, "Proof Of Life." "When I took the story to Vanity
Fair, they fell in love with it immediately and told me
to go wherever I needed in order to write it," he continues.
He further explains, "The first six months were spent just
trying to negotiate my way as a writer into this group of
people, mostly ex-CIA and ex-British SAS—people who are
very used to secrecy and very unused to reporters. They
reluctantly let me in because I think they wanted their
story told." "I was looking very badly for a kidnapping
negotiation to go out on or something like that, but it
was just too secretive and touchy for that. However, when
I spoke to Susan Hargrove, the wife of Tom Hargrove who
was kidnapped in 1994 outside of Cali, Columbia, she unloaded
the family end of the story. The extraordinary psychological
pressures she and her family faced were so compelling that
I became interested in that aspect of the kidnap experience
and included it in my story," Prochnau offers.
Titled Adventures In the Ransom Trade,
Prochnau’s final article appeared in the May 1998 issue
of Vanity Fair. After a year of intense research,
travelling between Europe and South America, he exposed
a new business to interested readers that has resulted from
the growth of today’s global economy in the post-Cold War
era. His story caught the interest of Director/Producer
Taylor Hackford and his creative partner, Tony Gilroy.
"Bill deserves a great deal of credit
because as a very good investigative journalist, he stuck
his nose in someplace secret and revealed a lot about a
business the general public, and in some cases, even the
employees of global corporations know nothing about. Why
tell someone who is about to transfer to the Philippines
that their chances of being kidnapped are astronomically
higher than in Des Moines, Iowa?" comments Hackford. He
continues, "I’m always looking for a unique drama in a dynamic
setting. When I read Bill’s article, I just went, ‘WOW!’
I haven’t seen or heard this before. Plus this subject contains
fantastic interpersonal turmoil that gives rise to very
dramatic situations," says Hackford. He continues, "I called
my creative partner, Tony Gilroy, and told him to read it.
When he did, he agreed that we could create an original
story from this material with a huge quotient of emotion
and drama, because a kidnapping totally alters the lives
of all people involved."
Tony Gilroy explains on transforming a
non-fiction piece into a developed screenplay, "There were
a thousand movies in that article. The main thing that Taylor
and I agreed on was that as compelling as Tom and Susan
Hargrove’s story was, we didn’t want to do a real-life story
or docu-drama." Hackford and Gilroy were able to talk to
more people than Prochnau for their research. Gilroy elaborates,
"We told everybody that we weren’t doing a documentary or
a real-life story, and they could, if they wanted, just
give us an amalgamation of several cases without real names.
They didn’t need to reveal where an actual kidnapping took
place. We didn’t care-- just as long as we got the material.
It’s sort of the opposite of journalism which is why I think
people were more willing to talk to us than they were to
a journalist." He continues, "Once we had the story and
it began to take shape, then it was easier to talk to the
‘K&R’ people and be specific with what we needed, like ‘what
would you do in a situation like this?’"
it turns out, the title, "Proof Of Life," was the easiest
part of the screenwriting process. Gilroy reveals, "I got
the title the third day in Germany when Taylor and I first
met the Hargroves’ since it kept popping up in our conversations.
It’s a term in the kidnapping business that is constantly
used as you negotiate to prove that the hostage is still
alive." He continues, "The title was really helpful in writing
the movie because it helped me figure out what our story
was about. It just didn’t mean someone holding up a newspaper,
but it actually had a thematic resonance for the three main
characters. They start off the movie with some serious problems
and then go through this dramatic, cathartic change." Hackford
adds, "I loved the title ‘Proof Of Life.’ It’s a specific
term in the ‘K&R’ business, but in this instance, it’s also
about people who have reached an impasse in their life,
people who have been stalled emotionally, who are at a crisis
point in their relationships. They have this event that
rocks them and forces them to contemplate, ‘Why am I here?
What am I doing with my life?’"
Meg Ryan, who agreed to sign on to the
project after reading the first draft of the script and
helped develop her character in the subsequent rewrites,
offers, "The significance of ‘Proof Of Life’ for me is how
my character rediscovers herself through a really dramatic
situation. Through crisis, she’s learning how to become
very present in her life.
ABOUT THE CASTING: The story revolves
around three characters—‘Alice Bowman,’ ‘Terry Thorne’ and
‘Peter Bowman’-- as played by Meg Ryan, Russell Crowe and
David Morse. Meg Ryan was the first to join the movie, which
filmed in three different countries, far from the safety
of Hollywood. Taylor Hackford offers, "I have known Meg
for a long time and thought she would be a wonderful choice
for this film. Most people think that Meg’s giddy, comedic
film persona is who she really is. In reality she’s serious,
intelligent and complex. I sent her Bill’s original article,
which she loved, but she knew that we weren’t shooting the
article, we were creating a totally new story. Before committing
she wanted to see what we were going to do with this material.
When she finally read Tony’s first draft, she was immediately
excited and had many specific suggestions for her character.
When she knew we would be responsive to her idea she signed
Meg Ryan, an actress loved around the
world by audiences of all ages, volunteers her initial reaction
to Prochnau’s article and Gilroy’s script, "I had an absolute
fascination because I had no idea that kidnapping was such
a big business, or that there was any such thing as kidnap
insurance. It was all brand new information that I found
really captivating." The casting of Russell Crowe in the
key role of ‘Terry Thorne’ proved to be a stroke of luck
for the production. Hackford points out, "Russell had done
"L.A. Confidential," which I was impressed with. However,
I’d heard that Russell had two films in the can, ‘The Insider’
and ‘Gladiator’ that no one had seen. I called both directors
who are my colleagues and asked them a major favor: to go
into their editing rooms and see Russell’s unreleased work.
I first saw Ridley Scott’s ‘Gladiator.’
I fully expected Ridley to paint a huge canvas, but I was
particularly impressed by how Russell Crowe dominated that
canvas. His physicality was palpable, but there was also
a real intelligence shining through all that physicality,"
remembers Hackford. "Then I went across town into Michael
Mann’s editing room and saw an actor who’d gained forty-five
pounds playing an entirely non-physical, intellectual character
involved in a crisis of conscience. I thought, ‘this guy
is an incredible actor and he’s definitely going to be a
star!’ I found myself facing Martin Shafer, President of
Castle Rock Pictures and Alan Horn, then Chairman and C.E.O.
of Castle Rock Entertainment, now President and Chief Operating
Officer of Warner Bros., stating ‘Russell Crowe is the right
guy for us,’" recounts Hackford.
who packed audiences into theaters with his performance
in this past summer’s "Gladiator" reveals, "It’s a pretty
similar situation to the other scripts that I read and end
up doing in that something within the story is new or fresh.
There is a lot of information in this story that we haven’t
seen before, the fact that ‘K&R’ is such a huge business
and how it directly affects Americans." Regarding his character
"Terry Thorne," Crowe states, "He’s got a very good bedside
manner. He’s very calm and reassuring to the client, but
there is a distance. He has his business sincerity level
but at the same time what happens in our story cuts through
his ordinarily objective persona where he is affected more
emotionally by the people involved."
The casting of the key role of ‘Peter
Bowman’ proved to be harder, but Morse’s work in the Castle
Rock Entertainment’s "The Green Mile" convinced everyone
that he was the right actor for the job. David Morse, who
has been working nonstop since he wrapped filming on "The
Green Mile," remembers, "I got a call from Martin Shafer
at Castle Rock Entertainment and was told to be prepared
for a very difficult role—physically difficult. I responded
by telling him that it was fine by me, that I’m happy to
do difficult things." As the one who is kidnapped, Hackford
wanted Morse to lose a great deal of weight for the role.
He followed a medically supervised diet and quickly shed
the pounds. He endured long hours of hair and makeup as
well to ensure that the audience will believe how the hardships
of a kidnap experience affect the hostage’s appearance.
Regarding researching the role, Morse
reveals, "I decided not to research what it means to be
a hostage before we started shooting. I didn’t want to prepare
to be a hostage. Instead, I focused on playing a man who
came to South America to build a dam and do essentially
what he had dreamed of doing for years. So I started the
filming with the idea that I’m building a dam and let’s
just see what happens when the hostage stuff starts happening."
He continues, "Once we did the abduction, I gave Tom Hargrove
a call and started to find out what it was like for him.
I also had his book, which was confirmation that I was on
track. I was very concerned about honoring his experience
and in talking to him and through our emails, I got the
sense that I was doing okay."
Other key roles belong to David Caruso,
who portrays an American ‘K&R’ negotiator, and Pamela Reed,
who plays Peter Bowman’s sister. Hackford was also keen
on maintaining the international scope of the movie and
cast such talented English thespians as Alun Armstrong and
Michael Kitchen, German actor Gottfried John and Cuban actor
Mario Ernesto Sanchez. In casting the other South American
roles, Hackford went to every major South American capital
searching for the right actors to play each of the parts.
He cast Diego Trujillo in the key role of ‘Eliodoro’ and
Vicky Hernandez as ‘Maria,’ the Bowmans’ maid, who both
hail from Columbia. In addition he discovered Pietro Sibille,
a charismatic young actor from Peru for the crucial role
of Juaco, Peter’s tormentor. He also cast two more Peruvian
actors; Norma Martinez who plays Diego’s wife, Norma and
Laura Escobar as one of the young guerillas. 15-year-old
Flora Martinez from Venezuela was also cast to play a teenage
guerilla. Plus, Hackford gave a small but key role to Ecuador’s
rising new star, Marcos Bustos and recognized the talents
of 14-year-old Sarahi Echeverria, also from Ecuador, who
makes her acting debut in "Proof Of Life."
"Our cast is truly international. Besides
South America, we went to Poland and cast Chechnyans and
Russians for the parts that were shot there. There’s an
authenticity about these roles, nobody’s phoneying up an
accent," Hackford offers. "Ultimately, our stars feed off
this fantastic group of international support players and
I believe that this collaboration will communicate the reality
I was looking for in ‘Proof Of Life,’" Hackford concludes.
--Thanks to voodoodoll for posting!
MORE ABOUT PROOF OF LIFE PRODUCTION AT MOVIEWEB.COM
saw the film Saturday, December 9 and I loved it. I was
expecting a different ending for sure. Russell Crowe was
very handsome in the movie as always. I am glad he picked
a movie with a great script. He does seem to be more into
making a movie worth watching than millions of dollars.
The movie keeps you in suspense you know when you like the
movie so much you do not want to get up and go to the bathroom,
because you might miss something. Well this is how good
Proof of Life is. Meg Ryan plays Alice and her character
has lots of chemistry with Russell. I enjoyed the movie
and so did my husband. So it was alot more than a romance
movie, it was action and suspense. thanks.
Rated: Five crowes
This is a story
that shows how individuals get affected in the course of
political turbulence. A man is kidnapped in a South American
country that is mired in political uncertainty - and there
begins the trauma for this man and his family. It exposes
how our world is an insecure place - and how helpless is
an individual. being a citizen of United States still does
not ensure that all efforts possible are made for his rescue.
An individual is helpless because institutions have their
own interests - the US government is making efforts to bring
the insurgents to the negotiating table and so it won't
make rescue efforts that can jeopardize this process. Big
business has its own interests to serve. If there are efforts
made, it is because his wife marshals her own personal resources.
This is looking at politics from an individualistic viewpoint.
One individual cannot be sacrificed today, only so that
many can be saved later. Being is more important than Becoming.
The story is a condemnation of a possibly revolutionary
social movement gone awry (and which comes down to kidnapping
and torturing innocent people - all for money), of governments,
which ignore people for the so-called policy issues, and
of big business for which its profits are more important
than a human life. It also reveals the innate greatness
of the human spirit - so that a man risks his life to save
the husband of a woman - a woman whom he has known barely
for months - towards whom he has some delicate feelings
- but who knows well enough that there is not much meaning
in such feelings. Yet the hero risks his life and saves
the woman's husband. In the whole pattern of politics and
social movements, it is one man's action driven by the most
delicate of human feelings which is liberating - which breaks
structures - and which therefore is the light of hope in
the darkness of despair all around. The movie is good to
watch. Meg Ryan is sweet as always, Russell Crowe is good
with an understated performance - what is left unsaid speaks
more than what is said. It is indeed a proof of what life
is today and what Life is.
I was at the Austrian premiere of PROOF OF LIFE, of course,
as a film market we are so little and unimportant - guess
what, nobody - who we would have liked to see -was there.
I thought PROOF OF LIFE was pretty good, if you had read
all the gossip-stories before (I am sure you did) you were
prepared to see a bomb. But Tayler Hackford didn't do so
much wrong. Meg Ryan was really good, Russel Crowe was laid
back and did a good job and the action-sequences were superb
and believable, I also have to say, that David Morse did
a hell of a job in the mountains. With all the rain, I probably
would have died in the first place. This movie is an example
how to destroy the reputation of a good movie. The press
was to preoccupied with the love-affair, which had nothing
to do with the performance of the actors. But I will look
forward to the new turn in Russell Crowe's career and the
new movie Beautiful Mind.
Rated: Four Crowes
Russell Crowe fan will like this movie simply because he
is in it. That, of course, is not the only reason I give
a high review. The story is very original and very interesting.
The multi-billion dollar industry of Kidnap and Ransom is
something the average Joe may not be aware of. The acting
is great, all around, and yes even Meg Ryan is good in this
film. To her critics...she looses her husband to terrorist
kidnappers, she is supposed to look and feel like crap (that
is the point). I think she did a superb job, personally.
And Russell...well...do I really have to tell you how GREAT
he is? Nope, didn't think so. But also supporting cast here,
great. David Caruso, wonderful, delivers the best lines,
and David Morse gives a thoughtful performance as well.
Cinematography equally impressive. So where does it fall
short? Script. This story can't decide between two angles.
Do they focus on the love that develops between Terry and
Alice or do they focus on David Morse's character and his
ordeal? Both deserving of attention, but not in the same
movie. Somebody make up their minds here. Also, development
of love story most disappointing. But all in all a good
Rated: Four Crowes
-- Lisa Andion
watch a lot of films - good and bad - but there are only
a few films, which surprise me. When the film hit the UK
it was most talked about for the off screen romance between
Meg Ryan and Russell Crowe. Apparently most critics decided
there was no chemistry on screen between the two - but they
must have been watching a different film! The action scenes
were great and all the information on K&R made my head spin
for a while. You hear it happening all the time on the news
but no one ever tells you who organized the release of the
hostages and at what personal cost. David Caruso played
off Russell Crowe well and provided comical relief. "Proof
of Life" will find it's way into my DVD collection.
Rated: Five Crowes
-- Viola Arthur